The oldest traces of life in this area were discovered during the period of Illyrians (1500 BC), when this territory was inhabited by Illyrian tribes Autariats and Ardies. Their thumbstones were discovered in the nearby area. Later on this area became part of the Roman Province named "Malavico". The road called "Via Drina" was passing through Drina river valley, and at about that time the Germanic miners Sas allso arrived, therefore one part of Višegrad is today called Sase.
The Roman coins called Constantinus I and II have been discovered in župa, which is located down the river at Višegrad. Also, the remains of the Slovene ceramics form the VI and VII century were discovered during the research made by The Museum of Natural Science in Sarajevo back in 1966 in the area of village Mušići as a proof of Slovenes being settled down in the region. Nearby Višegrad are located numerous localities with the medieval Stećak’s, of which most famous are Velika and Mala Gostilja.
Due to its geographic, strategic and economic position Višegrad had very disruptive history and was a target of many conquescadors. In the time of Stefan Nemanja the whole area was part of Serbian country of Nemanjići. In the mid 14th century it was in the control of Serbian County Head Nikola Altomanović. Afterwards the area was ruled by Bosnian King Tvrtko I and annexed to Bosnian Kingdom.
Višegrad is mentioned for the first time in 1433 when it belonged to mighty ruling house of Pavlović, who as well ruled the middle age city of Dobrun. On top of hill and just near Drina bridge one can see traces of the old city or so called Pavlovina (after the Duke Pavle Radenković). The ruins itself are located at two locations and are called "Gornji grad" and "Donji grad". At the bottom of the stari grad, and on top of rocks difficult to approach above Drina stands a tower called by people "The Tower of Kraljević Marko", that was used as an observation post. It is an oval object 8 m high, which was covered by stones during the Turkish rule in order to prevent outlaws and Serb uprisals to hide in it. It was written by famous Turkish traveler Evlija Čelebija, that Mehmed Paša constructed the Višegrad town around the year 1577, but as there was also a settlement above that one, the city was named Višegrad.
According to Turkish sources the city was taken by Osman Paša in 1544 and the city stayed after that point under Turkish rule until the Berlin Congress in 1878 when whole Bosnia was taken over by Austro-Hungarians. With the arrival of Austro-Hungarians Višegrad is becoming more urban center. They have built waterworks, introduced land registries, built narrow-gauge railway and other public buildings.
After the First World War Višegrad becomea part of The Kingdom of Yugoslavia, as part of Bosnia and Hercegovina.
The city was completely ruined during the First and Second World War, with most buildings heavily damaged, including the Višegrad bridge.
At present time Višegrad is part of Republika Srpska as a part of wider and independent country, Bosnian and Herzegovina.